Association Of Pakhtoon Scholars FATA


Mohmand agency

The Mohmand Agency is one of the agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. Mohmand Agency takes its name from the Mohmand tribe which lives in the area. The agency was established in 1951. Earlier this area was under the administrative control of political agent Khyber. However it was not until 1973 that the headquarters of the Mohmand agency were moved from Peshawar to Ekkagund. Now, the permanent agency headquarters is at Ghalanai, deep in the Mohmand agency. It lies between 34 10' to 34 43' north latitudes and 70 58' to 71 42' east longitudes. It is bounded on the north by the Bajaur agency, on the east by Malakand protected area and Charsadda district, on the sough-east by Peshawar district, on the south by Khyber agency and on the west by Afghanistan. The total area of the agency is 2296 square kilometres. According to the 1998 census the population was 334,453 but in reality its Population is about 600,000.

Physical Features
Mohmand agency is an area of rugged mountains with barren slopes. General slope of the area is from north-east with an average height over 1450 meters. Ilazai (2716) is the highest peak near the pak afghan border. Other important peaks are Yari sar (1929 meters) and Silai of Mohmand agency. The most extensive part of the territory included in Mohmand agency lies in the glens and valley that start from the mountains of Tartarra, south of the Kabul river; and Ilazai, north of this river, and chief among these settlements are the valleys of Shilman, Gandab, Pindiali and the banks of the Kabul river. The Mohmand settlements are generally dry and arid, water-courses, raging torrents during heavy rains, usually presenting a stony and shingle bed, from which slopes of barren ground lead to the rocky spurs and ranges that flanks them. Running water is hard to find in most of these valleys except Gandab and Shilman valleys. In the Mohmand hill there are dry ravines between long rows of rocky hills and crugs, scantly clothed with course grass, scrub wood, and dwarf palm (mizri) leading upto the higher peaks of Ilazai and Tartarra.

Mohmand agency is geographically sub divided for administrative convenience into Upper and Lower Mohmand areas. Lower Mohmand area is rather fertile whereas Upper Mohmand area is comparatively less productive.

Administrative Set Up

The agency is divided in two sub division and seven tehsils.

Upper Mohamand Sub- Divison

Safi teshil
Upper Mohamand tehsil
Talimzai tehsil


Lower Mohamand Sub-Division

Pindyali tehsil
Ambar tehsil
Yakka Ghund tehsil
Prang Ghar tehsil


The Political Agent is the over all in charge for the agency administration, assisted by Assistant Political Agents. The agency headquarter is located at Ghalanai. The agency is divided in two sub division and seven tehsils. The Political Tehsildar is the in-charge of each Tehsil.

Mohmand is an ancient tribe. It is a branch of Ghani Khel Afghan, and for centuries before their migration to their present settlements lived near the Tarmak and Oxus river in central Afghanistan. According to the historians they moved to the present areas of occupation between 13th and 15th centuries, expelling and subduing the original native Hindus and other non-Afghan race.

When Peshawar was annexed formally by the Britishers, the area that comprises the present Mohmand agency was ruled by the local tribesmen and was under the influence of Khan of Lalpura. Safis were under the control of Khans of Bajaur and Utmankhels were independent of any Khanate.


Race and Tribes

The major tribes in Mohmand agency are:

Tarak zai
Halim zai
Khwae zai
Bai zai

Gur baz

Utman Khel
Ambar Utman Khel
Laman Utman khe

The Safis, because of their association with the Mohmand, are also called Safi Mohmands but actually they are not Mohmand in Legacy. The tribe has been divided in upper Mohmand and lower Mohmand. The central bazaar of Mohmand is Gandhab and locally known as Ghandao Bazaar.  The Tarakzai are concentrated in the lower Mohmand from Ekka Ghund to Michanai up to Daudzai. They are a well educated tribe settled at the gate of the Mohmand Agency. The sub-tribes of the Tarak Zai are Dado Khel, Qasim Khel, Bran Khel and Issa Khel.

The Kabul River and Swat River are the two rivers that pass through the area of the Lower Mohmand. Kabul River forms the boundary between the Khyber and Mohmand agencies after entry into Pakistan territory. The flow of the water is from the west towards the east. On entry into Pakistan territory, the course of the Kabul River is through high mountains gorges till after it passes through the Warsak Dam, where after it starts running through the Peshawar valley area. Swat river flows from the north towards south after entering the  agency limits from the Malakand  and passes through the area of Prang Ghar/Pindiali Tehsil. The course of this river is also through mountainous territory till it reaches the Munda Headworks wherefrom it starts running through the plains.


The climate in Mohmand agency is hot in summer season while cool in winter. The summer season commences from May and continues for 4 months till 31st August. The winter season starts from November and continue till February. The rainfall is scanty. Most of the rainfall is during winter season.


The sources of income are very limited in general except agriculture and some trade/business. Most of the locals are earning their livelihood in the Gulf States.


Places of Interest

Warsak Dam
Warsak Hydel Power station is situated on the river Kabul about 32.2 km from Peshawar. The construction of the project was started in 1955 and the power station was commissioned in 1960. Before commissioning of Mangla Power station, it was one of the major sources of power.

Munda Dam
Munda dam is being constructed on Swat River to the east of the agency which is an ideal site for a hydro power station.

Gandab valley
This historic valley is situated in the Mohmand agency and shoots forth in the north- west direction from Pir Killa, a village on the main Michni Shabqadar road, and 32 km to the north of Peshawar. It runs parallel to a dry bed of a nullah; it is inhabited by the Halim zai section of the Mohmand tribe.


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